Gerundive Construction

Prolegomena 1 This chapter collapses two apparently disparate entities: the Romance languages and a single language belonging to the Germanic group. The structure of the paper is as follows: section 2 outlines the main properties of Russian topic drop in non-adverbial contexts. The mayor of Russia’s fourth-largest city of Yekaterinburg has suspended construction of an Orthodox cathedral on park grounds as mass protests against the project continued for a fourth day. vos Pronunciation spelling of os. Infinitives a) thematic flexion:. On the constructional semantics of gerundive nominalizations On the constructional semantics of gerundive nominalizations Heyvaert, Liesbet 2008-04-01 00:00:00 This paper starts out from the observation that the semantic labels of 'fact' and 'action' (Lees 19681960) that are traditionally used in the description of English gerundive nominalizations (e. Carroll Construction, every project we undertake is built on our founding principles of honesty, integrity, and transparency. By natural language we mean a language that is used for everyday communication by humans; languages like English, Hindi or Portuguese. GERUND AND GERUNDIVEI. visere: The infinitive expressing purpose as a substitute for utwith the subjunctive (or a gerund or gerundive construction) is uncommon in Classical Latin until the later period. " A very familiar passive periphrastic is a phrase attributed to Cato, who was bent on destroying the Phoenicians. GERUNDIVE PHRASES Gerundive phrases may function in any way in which nouns may function: as subjects, objects, objects of a preposition, or even nouns functioning as adjectives Gerundive phrases may contain gerunds, adjectives, objects, adverbs or other main verb elements. The adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese and some southern/insular dialects of European Portuguese. When used in such a construction, the gerund or gerundive takes on the masculine genitive singular. I am Michael, I was born in 1974, raised and baptized and have been attending Novus Ordo masses, but then I grew doubts in this NO mass because I feel spiritually empty even after mass and seldom attend it. When to use le participe composé in French. This construction has two different meanings and possible translations into English. = appendix. Irregular past participles, unfortunately, conclude in all kinds of ways [although this list will help]. For core part-of-speech categories, see the universal POS tags. Jong-Bok Kim. As we have seen in the first section, As were either unmarked or marked by the agentive postposition. The construction links a participle with the subject through a form of the verb "sum". This is often done for stylistic purposes in order to avoid the cumbersome repetition of -orum and -arum endings, e. [1][This is a practical working rule. Future passive participle, gerundive A participle form with many names: participle of necessity,. The four types of gerunds and gerund phrases follow:. Normally identical with the neuter singular of the past participle and therefore used as the fourth principal part of a transitive verb not often used in sentences. 4 The Gerundive Construction 186 Chapter 6 Locative Phrases, Motion Phrases, and Particles 191 6. PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS: OVERVIEW II. The service has been back to normal. Intermediate Gerunds and Infinitives. Recevoir verb is direct transitive, intransitive. Recall that the second periphrastic is a construction tying some form of esse to the gerundive ('future passive participle'). Johnson, Cornell University. Questionnaire on Ditransitive Constructions Preliminaries (i) Ditransitive construction is defined semantically as 'a construction with a recipient (R) and a theme (T) argument', where these semantic role labels are understood broadly. gerund definition: 1. By adding the verb “to be” to the gerundive, it forms the future passive periphrastic. [consult (for counsel) + L. This might be considered inappropriate from a strictly genetic point of view. īnsuētus nāvigandī (B. If the verb is intransitive or used intransitively the nominative neuter gerundive is used with a tense of esse in an impersonal construction. This structure is formed by a predicate gerundive - a gerundive is a verbal adjective with a passive meaning. [consult (for counsel) + L. PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. The list of gerundives that can be used attributively at all is pretty short (laudandus, horrendus, secundus, ferendus, ). Finally, participial clauses are different from both finite clauses and gerundive nominals in being able to enter into relations of obligatory control. Synonyms for gerund in Free Thesaurus. “Literacy after the Revolution. THE GERUNDIVE The construction en + present participle, which is called a gerundive, is used to speak about two actions happening simultaneously. a word ending in…. (5) “san” –Past Tense NDS “dag” - Indefinite Present NDS. the differences between present participle, gerund (or gerundive construction replacing the latter), and infinitive 2. Cato is said to have ended his speeches with the phrase "Carthago delenda est" or "Carthage must be destroyed. Save thee, God save thee, of which the Fr. Gerundives thus opt for non-specific, generic reference to encode the name of a type or class of process (with no subject implied) or to encode an instance with generic. The Gerundive with sum (Passive Periphrastic) Latin has two verb constructions called periprahstic conjugations. [1][This is a practical working rule. The (inadmissible) construction with the gerund would be ad subeundum perīcula ; ad governing the gerund, and the gerund governing the accusative perīcula ] For details, see §§ 504 - 507, below. (21)0(21 (22) For Penn to lose would be awful. To express such concepts, the construction with the adjectival gerundive is preferred. Form: 4th Principal Part (laudatus, monitus, ductus, auditus, captusetc. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Latin Alive: The Survival of Latin in English and the Romance Languages. KEY WORDS TRANSLATION Indirect Question. What Is a Gerundive? Although a small number of traditional grammarians use the term gerundive as a synonym for gerund , the gerundive is a distinct verb form in Latin grammar. This statement's construction. A section on this will be added shortly. 2) With sum, esse, the nominative gerundive is a main verb: the "future passive periphrastic" construction expressing necessity: e. The service has been back to normal. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper attempts to resolve problems involving distributional properties and endocentricity of English genrund constructions. Gerunds Infinitives 5. יִבְנֶה, with ו conv. It is very rarely combined with dependent sentence elements such as Object. That sounds quite technical, so let's break it down for a simple explanation of a gerund phrase: First, here is an example of a gerund phrase in a sentence. For example, the verb give may occur in the ditransitive construction because the verb and construction have the same meaning ('sb transfers sth to sb'). addenda addendums something you add to the end of a speech or book to change it or give more information addendum to İlgili Terimler addenda Supplemental documents added on the purchase agreement that become part of the legally binding purchase agreement addenda. In English, this construction is usually expressed using a relative clause: Diese im 17. res evertendae reipublicae 'matters concerning the overthrow of the state' (literally 'of the state being overthrown'). Buddhism proposes a theory of salvation. The Wede:i famiy has recently been shown to be related to Lenani-Littoral and Mei, the three families being grouped together as Southern. vos Pronunciation spelling of os. It doesn't make sense for this word to be the subject of this line; however, because a noun (homines) is present. My fairly long experience of teaching first-year university students and of assessing S. Contents[show] General information Borchennymendi is the native language spoken by approximately 3,200,000 inhabitants of the Kingdom of Borchennymi, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, to the south of the Azores and to the west of the Canary Islands. They lose the i of the stem before a consonant and also before i, í, and e (except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). when translating into English, start with the word 'it', but remember that you may have to adjust your literal translation to achieve a stylish result) (see pp. consultand: ( kon-sŭl'tand ), A person about whose future offspring the genetic counselor is to make predictions; not to be confused with proband. complex sentences (and thus the difference between. What is another name for a Latin Gerundive? 3. Where the verb is of the standard transitive type and governs a direct object in the accusative case, the gerundive is always used in classical Latin prose, and the dative of the gerund cannot be used to show purpose; and even where a choice is possible, Latin almost always prefers the gerundive construction. The passive periphrastic is a Latin construct to express a sense of necessity in an action. The Green New Deal and Gerundive Government [Updated] I doubt America’s industrial capacity is sufficient to produce all of the Green Weenie Awards that the Green New Deal, unveiled today in. Gerundive nominalization: a gerund noun as the Head of a nominal group, employing a ‘the + gerund + of’ pattern: the spreading of the widening of: the spread of the expansion of: Incomplete reconstrual: processes or Qualities that function metaphorically as Things, yet fail to take on the appropriate morphological affix: the understand. defenderet : see the reasons in the note on the Campaign against Ariovistus, p. In the general efforts of the post-English Renaissance grammarians to force Latin grammatical structures onto English, the gerund and gerundive received some attention. It’s important to remember this basic grammar rule: HOWEVER, there is always an exception to the rule in English! Normally, ‘to’ goes with a verb (as part of the infinitive form), not a noun. [CHEX %PARSER=2. SpellCHEX Dictionary. Then, change to a correct Latin gerundive construction. 1625 Gerund as subject or object – Exercise. For example, one of the three gerundives for पठ् "to read" is पठितव्य "to be read". " Mihi fugiendum est. 20+ Gerund Examples – PDF, DOC It is true that the English language is a hard subject to study and understand. One plausible explanation for this is the gerundive construction's versatility in expressing duty and necessity. Another well-known favorite that must be included in this collection is: in vino veritas In wine (is) truth. Phone: (905) 659-8595 Toll Free: 1-844-855-8342 [email protected] As its name suggests this participle forms passive constructions. New grammar includes all uses of the subjunctive mood, gerund and gerundive; the student’s overriding task is to read and comprehend the variety of clauses and constructions which typically form the Latin periodic sentence. Exercises on the ending -ing. com - id: 58c1cd-MTg4M. The passive periphrastic consists of the gerundive (a passive verbal adjective) plus sum. Verse: 'On Practice' Below this text there are two audio files, and in the following section you will find this week's verse. They accused me of lying. GI003 - Gerund or Infinitive - Fill in the correct form Intermediate. Also sometime referred to as the participle of necessity, the potential participle or gerundive (not to be confused with the gerund). Possessive with a Gerundive Leave a reply When I wrote about the “use a possessive with a gerundive” rule on July 29 , I assumed it would be quite a while before I came across the rule in a real-world sentence. In this case, it is, then, a periphrastic passive construction. The Gerundive with the Second Periphrastic 3. Verbs of the Third Conjugation in -ió have certain forms of the present stem like the fourth conjugation. 1617 Infinitive or Gerund after verbs. Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sent. We suggest that you activate the first audio below so that you can listen to my explanation, you should also swipe forward to view the page of text while listening. Uses of the gerund [438] a) Accusative We have seen that, for the role of direct object, we use the infinitive as such: • Volo legere I WANT TO READ. A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund. English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural. I spent a lot of time (make) a birthday cake for him. Using llevar + gerund to express duration of an action; Using llevar + gerund to express duration of an action. This is a book about Natural Language Processing. It describes the arrival of Aeneas and his troops in Latium after the fall of Troy. armorum capiendorum cupidus est "he was eager to take up arms" may be shortened to arma capiendi cupidus est. Thousands of residents have taken to the streets against the city authorities’ plans to replace a central park with a replica of a cathedral. A gerundive construction can only take the place of a transitive gerund with a direct object [1], and not of gerund with an indirect object, for example. (Slightly politer than do you mind) Note: When we talk about the Present or the Past, we use Past tense following the subject. January 25, 2006) 1. Gerunds & Gerundives. Calends definition is - the first day of the ancient Roman month from which days were counted backward to the ides. Do you feel like (go) to the theatre on Friday? 2. Stupid writing rules–Beware the Dunning-Kruger Effect. SVCs in that language result from a gerundive construction after the loss of both a subordinator and an indexation pattern specific to dependent clauses. Jong-Bok Kim. (b) Genitive of gerund or of gerundive, or future infinitive. The construction and uses of the gerund and the gerundive in Latin grammar The Gerund and Gerundive Outside the finite forms of the verb, and akin to the noun, are a number of verbal forms: the infinitive, the supine, the lparticiple, the gerund, and the gerundive. The gerund looks exactly the same as a present participle, but it is useful to understand the difference between the two. Types of Ablative: Separation| |Agent| |Comparison| |Accordance| |Material| |Origin| |Manner| |Means| |Degree of Difference. The passive periphrastic construction in Latin expresses the idea of obligation -- of "must" or "ought. (noun) An example of innuendo is telling people that a public official seems to be giving a lot of construction jobs to a contractor from whom he gets a lot of. 1) The first one has a temporal aspect, and can be translated as "While ___-ing. ge·run·dive (jə-rŭn′dĭv) n. This step-by-step beginners’ guide to medieval Latin, created by our experts, will help you gain the necessary skills to read documents from this period. the argonauts 67 - a heavy task THIS SEVENTEENTH CENTURY PAINTING BY CHARLES LA FOSSE AT VERSAILLES PALACE DEPICTS JASON AND THE ARGONAUTS DISEMBARKING AT COLCHIS. visere: The infinitive expressing purpose as a substitute for utwith the subjunctive (or a gerund or gerundive construction) is uncommon in Classical Latin until the later period. Collecting stamps is a boring hobby for a lot of people. For examples of this rare use of the Hithpael, cf. GERUNDIVE ATTRACTION Are you attracted to Gerundives…? Quite a lot of Latin nouns were. The Helvetian Campaign in Caesar’s Gallic War Latin Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary Beta Edition 2017 De Bello Gallico I. Since participles are verbal adjectives the participle -- the gerundive -- will agree in number, gender and case with the subject to which it is linked. When used in such a construction, the gerund or gerundive takes on the masculine genitive singular. This construction is called the ablative of manner: Virī (cum) cōnstantiā magnā pugnant. Gerunds are words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns. Ein Gerund ist ein Verb das als Nomen fungiert. Latin's Future Participles must agree with the nouns they modify in case, number, and gender. We set the bar high and provide the highest level of service possible while we are making our clients’ vision a reality. Il est alors précédé de IR. A participle phrase will begin with a present or past participle. Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element qualifying the other. The only exceptions are those few verbs that take an ablative noun: utor , fruor , fungor , vescor , and potior. What is AN INFINITIVE? 300. Com-pound wh-questions can be responded to with sentential answers like (1A 1) or fragment answers like (1A 2). Referential Cohesion in American Sign Language: Modality-Specific and Modality-General Influences by Anne Therese Frederiksen Chair: Rachel Mayberry Current Position: Chancellor's Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Language Science, UC Irvine. Actually, the ablative case is the case for all sorts of time and space-related uses. The man asked me how (get) to the airport. " We conclude with some charmingly hyperbolic math ("a thousand million bugs") and the ecstatic repetition of. (Stefanowitsch and Gries 2003: 213). International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 21(2): 192–218. Gerundive definition, (in Latin) a verbal adjective similar to the gerund in form and noting the obligation, necessity, or worthiness of the action to be done, as legendus in Liber legendus est, “The book is worth reading. What is another name for a Latin Gerundive? 3. Note how the gerundive of moderor is used impersonally of mihi to indicate an "active" obligation: "I must moderate" where as the gerundive of fugio agrees with a noun for a "passive" obligation: "X must be avoided". The Vedic Passive Optative and Its Functional Equivalents: A Study in the Syntax of the Gerundive - Free download as PDF File (. pdf), Text File (. ) A gerund, which functions as a noun, can consist of a single word or a phrase. Es erhält die Form des Present Participle. He is a symbol of unbending resistance, and an example of a hero who defied all odds and managed to save most of his kingdom from the imperialistic ambitions of the Mughal state, then ruled by the talented Akbar. The only exceptions are those few verbs that take an ablative noun: utor , fruor , fungor , vescor , and potior. This statement's construction. (19) We use the preterite with one-time, completed actions. the gerundive) PORTANDUS SUM I am to be carried. consultand: ( kon-sŭl'tand ), A person about whose future offspring the genetic counselor is to make predictions; not to be confused with proband. Use: The Perfect Participle is always passive in meaning, and expresses action that occurs before that of the main verb, regardless of the tense of the main verb:. DEFINITION: A passive verb form consisting of the future passive participle (“gerundive”) plus a form of esse and indicating a necessary or obligatory action; the agent is indicated by a noun in the dative. 3 When not to use the gerund. I regret destroying the files. When the verbal action functioning as a noun has a recipient, then the gerundive construction is preferred. Edit: the commenter is right. Go to the second part, the infinitive, make the present participle and then the future passive one by changing -ns to -ndus. It is very rarely combined with dependent sentence elements such as Object. Would you mind If I used your phone now? Would you mind If I borrowed your car tonight? We may sometimes get confused by the subject. It’s always bugged me as I’ve never liked leaving things incomplete! 🙂. The Niphal participle is frequently used to describe things as "terrible," "awesome," or "terrifying. THE GERUNDIVE The construction en + present participle, which is called a gerundive, is used to speak about two actions happening simultaneously. When used in such a construction, the gerund or gerundive takes on the masculine genitive singular. It always has the same structure: subject + gerundive + the verb esse (declinated appropriately) + dative of agent. Flashcards. New grammar includes all uses of the subjunctive mood, gerund and gerundive; the student’s overriding task is to read and comprehend the variety of clauses and constructions which typically form the Latin periodic sentence. Suggest - English Grammar Today - una guida di riferimento alla grammatica e all'uso dell'inglese parlato e scritto - Cambridge Dictionary. 0 de Rato y Flvia, Vocabulario de las palabras yfra se s que se ha bi an enA slur/as (Madrid, 1891), and the Coleccin de poesias en dialecto asturiano (Oviedo, 1839); for Navarre se -Aragone se , se e J. Terms in this set (51) Caesar erat imperator. Deshors, Sandra C. What Is a Gerund Phrase? A gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing. A Fortiori Logic: Innovations, History and Assessments, by Avi Sion, is a wide-ranging and in-depth study of a fortiori reasoning, comprising a great many new theoretical insights into such argument, a history of its use and discussion from antiquity to the present day, and critical analyses of the main attempts at its elucidation. Mixed Exercises. The problem here is that present participles also end with the letters ing. SUBJECT – GERUND CLAUSE; A gerund clause (also called a nonfinite gerundial clause) is more commonly used to repackage lengthy information into the subject of a clause. The Gerundivum is constructed by adding -nd to the stem of a verb and the endings of the a- or o-declination. gerund definition: 1. A dictionary file. LaFleur (rev. The earliest generative analyses of the gerundive construction, such as those in Rosenbaum (1967) and Emonds (1970), took the category-ambiguous behavior of these structures as evidence that they were instances of the category NP exhaustively dom-inating a sentential complement. Of these three constructions, the one with the gerundive is the commonest. English: Verb+ ing or + infinitive. Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element qualifying the other. Deshpande notes that the gerundive carries “a passive optative meaning”. Synonyms for gerund in Free Thesaurus. Buttmann, 264f (227f); Harmsen in the Zeitschr. (Stefanowitsch and Gries 2003: 213). Two expressions with the gerund or gerundive may be used to express purpose. Ablative Absolute. The construction of the infinitive with prepositions (as in Greek, ἐν τῷ εἶναι, διὰ τὸ εἶναι, &c. The gerundive construction is usually substituted for the gerund plus object (fide servanda for fidem servando , both meaning 'by preserving good faith') when the gerund has an accusative object, especially when the gerund is the object of a preposition, or dative ( BA 395. Interestingly, Woodcock, who claims that it is a gerundive, gives examples from Early Latin where the relevant form takes a direct object, which could be taken as more compatible with the gerund analysis (e. Uses of the Gerundive Summary of the Gerundive The gerundive has two distinct forms--it may appear as verbal adjective (gerundive proper) or as verbal noun [the gerund--see ‘Uses of the Gerund’ (Gerund and Gerundive)] There gerundive is attributive, the gerund substantive The gerundive, a verbal adjective, “is always passive, denoting necessity, obligation, or propriety” (AG,…. Session 7 24/11 Chapter 37 (Achaemenides) Ablative of comparison. Thus, the gerundive construction is often used to indicate necessity or obligation (in place of words like debeo, oportet). The Gerundivum is constructed by adding -nd to the stem of a verb and the endings of the a- or o-declination. The passive periphrastic construction in Latin expresses the idea of obligation -- of "must" or "ought. This is the SpellCHEX dictionary for online spell checking. Gerundives thus opt for non-specific, generic reference to encode the name of a type or class of process (with no subject implied) or to encode an instance with generic. In Latin grammar, a gerundive (/ dʒ ə ˈ r ʌ n d ɪ v /) is a verb form that functions as a verbal adjective. Latin grammar includes two related concepts derived from a verb, the gerund and the gerundive. The adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese and some southern/insular dialects of European Portuguese. 1623 Gerund or Progressive. visere: The infinitive expressing purpose as a substitute for utwith the subjunctive (or a gerund or gerundive construction) is uncommon in Classical Latin until the later period. Next: Twelfth Night, Act 3, Scene 2 Explanatory Notes for Act 3, Scene 1 From Twelfth Night Or What You Will. The gerundive proper has three uses 1. 6) unused to making voyages. Gerunds are the -ing ones, and gerundives are the "must be done" ones. The word comes from the verb bello, bellare, which means "to wage war. Se conduire Conduire in passive voice Conduire in female form Ne pas conduire Conduire ? Conduire belong to the 3 rd group. Bradley's Arnold Latin Prose Composition, edited by J. Question verb. Well, sort of. The unusual objective-case-gerundive construction (I don't pretend to be a grammarian) continues: "him whispering" from the previous panel is followed by "him jumping" and then builds to "him jumping high and turning. By adding the verb “to be” to the gerundive, it forms the future passive periphrastic. I am looking for a list of verbs and the allowed construction (gerund/infinitive/both). English doesn't really have these as far as I know. You could say that they have identity issues. London: Macmillan. Aygen (and her famous cat, Kibo, and pet goat, Tuvinsky—in side-box asides) have actually made the study of school grammar fun. GERUNDIVE OF OBLIGATION. The unusual objective-case-gerundive construction (I don't pretend to be a grammarian) continues: "him whispering" from the previous panel is followed by "him jumping" and then builds to "him jumping high and turning. ] gerundive (dʒɪˈrʌndɪv) n (Grammar) (in Latin grammar) an. Latin Online Lesson 1 Winfred P. Lee, Seung-Ah. Porter then concluded, “In each instance, the gerundive is inserted as the passive, adjectival correlative to the active, substantival gerund. They're very easy to spot, since every gerund is a verb with ing tacked to its tail. Gerund or Infinitive. Extended Participial Constructions A present or past participle or a gerundive preceding a noun may be preceded by any number of modifiers in German. Gerunds and Infinitives Exercises. In Spanish, this form is often translated using an infinitive, such as nadar. Why does categorial reanalysis. Questionnaire on Ditransitive Constructions Preliminaries (i) Ditransitive construction is defined semantically as 'a construction with a recipient (R) and a theme (T) argument', where these semantic role labels are gerundive nominalizations may permit this: His lending me money surprised me] 20. What is AN INFINITIVE? 300. The gerundive construction is usually substituted for the gerund plus object (fide servanda for fidem servando , both meaning 'by preserving good faith') when the gerund has an accusative object, especially when the gerund is the object of a preposition, or dative ( BA 395. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage. Normally identical with the neuter singular of the past participle and therefore used as the fourth principal part of a transitive verb not often used in sentences. 500 years ago, to the day, Martin Luther strode through Wittenberg, and affixed to the door of the Castle Church 95 ‘theses’, or statements about the workings of the medieval Catholic Church which were like ecclesiological dynamite in the life of European. There are no exceptions to this rule. I regret destroying the files. (4) -san3 Gerundive (past simple) -dag Gerundive (present simple) -j baigaa Gerundive (present continuous) -h Gerundive (future) Sh. A gerund is a verb ending with -ing, but, it works as a noun and can act as a subject, object, or complement in a sentence. vestrum: not the possessive adjective, but the genitive of the pronoun vosin a partitive sense, here with nulla: "let no one of you. se : a repetition of sese above on account of the long parenthesis. You can call it a "verbal," if you like, but not a gerundive. canonical nominal construction in (8), an element of the VGP can be. The team won thanks to the goal scored by Max. A case- theoretic account within the Minimalist framework of Chomsky (1995) explains all three of these properties at once. This paper identifies two syntactic types in English gerunds: nominal gerunds and verbal gerunds. This is because "getting" in this sense is effectively a noun rather than a present participle - if my [email protected] were better, I'd probably know whether it was a gerund or a gerundive. Latin II: Participle, Gerund, and Gerundive Formation. org for Americas or for rest of world to orders [ at ] degruyter. Gerundives Posted by Brittany Britanniae on Feb 20, 2014 in Latin Language. This article analyzes the origins of the progressive construction: estar + -ndo. GI005 - Gerund with preposition Intermediate. 0 de Rato y Flvia, Vocabulario de las palabras yfra se s que se ha bi an enA slur/as (Madrid, 1891), and the Coleccin de poesias en dialecto asturiano (Oviedo, 1839); for Navarre se -Aragone se , se e J. amâre amâns / amandus. '' Pronominal Determiners in Gerundive Nominalization 73. The genitive of a gerund with a direct object may be used instead of the genitive gerundive, however. Synonyms for gerund at Thesaurus. Even for the classical language gerund and gerundive represent the same category, in the sense that the gerund can be shown to be a special case of the gerundive. Even I get taken in. On the other hand, "a nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. If you don't know your gerundive of choice can be used that way then it almost certainly can't. The good news is that our three-part tutorial gives you twenty gerund and infinitive tips to take you from beginner to pro. To jump right into KISS instruction, all you need is a Level One workbook for the students (from the "doc" column) and its corresponding teacher's analysis key (AK) book (for you). In sections 4 and 5 I consider the behavior of. Just to be super clear about the. " The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a –rī to the present stem. How can we identify a future passive participle? 5. What are synonyms for gerund?. This is often done for stylistic purposes in order to avoid the cumbersome repetition of -orum and -arum endings, e. As an inflected language, Latin verbs change their form to indicate the Future Perfect Verb Tense. When used in such a construction, the gerund or gerundive takes on the masculine genitive singular. The genitive of a gerund with a direct object may be used instead of the genitive gerundive, however. One intriguing constraint we can observe is that the gerundive clause. 1611 Infinitive of English verbs – Test. Here is a link to the Reading for this chapter, a passage from Horace's Sermones. Latdict currently boasts 39,225 Latin word entries, and 229,345 searchable English words. When used in the plural genitive, nostrī is used when it is the object of an action, especially when used with a gerund or gerundive. (1) to build, to erect, as a house, a temple, a city, walls, defences, Ezra 4:2 an altar, Genesis 8:20 a fane, Jeremiah 7:31 the deck of a ship, Ezekiel 27:5 once apparently of the foundation of a house, 1 Kings 6:1 where וַיִּבֶן; 2 Chronicles 3:1, is not ill explained. Gerundive nominalization: a gerund noun as the Head of a nominal group, employing a ‘the + gerund + of’ pattern: the spreading of the widening of: the spread of the expansion of: Incomplete reconstrual: processes or Qualities that function metaphorically as Things, yet fail to take on the appropriate morphological affix: the understand. Demonstrandum is a gerundive. Grammar Facts 1. Sometimes the dative has functions unrelated. " A very familiar passive periphrastic is a phrase attributed to Cato, who was bent on destroying the Phoenicians. (gerundive in agreement with proelium? In the end it doesn't matter--both sentences mean essentially the same thing--but to avoid ambiguity in some cases the Romans preferred the gerundive construction if the gerund would be dative or following a preposition (like the example above). In what 2 ways does Latin use the future passive participle? 7. Without knowing this, we cannot tell whether off is part of a prepositional phrase indicating direction (tagged B-PP), or whether off is part of the verb-particle construction turn off (tagged I-VP). If we use the clunky formula for translating the gerundive construction (consilium urbis capiendae), we end up with an English phrase that lacks both style and sense: "a design of the city needing to be taken. Which stem of the verb is used to form a Latin Gerundive? 4. The occasion was a week-long advanced course held at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva. Since all phrases require two or more words, a. Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element qualifying the other. Gerund is defined as a verbal form that functions as a verbal noun. The proposal is couched within the theoretical framework of Construction Grammar, in which the basic unit of language is the Construction, i. Infinitives a) thematic flexion:. The only exceptions are those few verbs that take an ablative noun: utor , fruor , fungor , vescor , and potior. " It responds to the question. Try to concentrate on the lesson and notice the pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place. LatinPraxis Index. Consequently, the feminine singular subject noun Carthago appears in the nominative case. The gerundive is also used in the nominative case with the auxiliary verb sum for the passive periphrastic conjugation, e. it should have the meaning "because(not)": non sapendo cosa fare = not knowing what to do = because he didn't know what to do However, in the case where the present gerundive is used in narration but is not so much causal, I think it works fine in English. LaFleur (rev. We use would you mind to ask for something in a polite way. 结构词什么意思_有道词典 结构描述词 Structure Description 动形词结构 gerundive construction 分词结构 participial construction 基于12个网页-相关网页. But it is. 2 A Special Ordering Rule for Particles 194 6. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): emphasis: bold in the examples This paper gives clear synchronic evidence for the origin of serial verb constructions (SVCs) in Emerillon, a Tupi-Guarani language. Gerund and infinitive worksheets are in PDF Format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. It's called passive because it is expressed in a passive tense, so it's usually better to change it back to its active form when translating. Note how the gerundive of moderor is used impersonally of mihi to indicate an "active" obligation: "I must moderate" where as the gerundive of fugio agrees with a noun for a "passive" obligation: "X must be avoided". The most interesting outcome of the meeting is that, in spite of differences in aims and scopes (epistemogenesis versus psychogenesis), in units of. Interactive exercises online. The only exceptions are those few verbs that take an ablative noun: utor , fruor , fungor , vescor , and potior. See note on obtinere , 2 1. He agreed (buy) a new car. Interestingly, compound wh-questions disallow some fragment answersthat theirsemantically equivalentphrasal wh-questionsallow. GERUNDIVE OF OBLIGATION. Noting that (on the nominal reading) it functions. it should have the meaning "because(not)": non sapendo cosa fare = not knowing what to do = because he didn't know what to do However, in the case where the present gerundive is used in narration but is not so much causal, I think it works fine in English. Gerunds are words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns. A case- theoretic account within the Minimalist framework of Chomsky (1995) explains all three of these properties at once. Why does categorial reanalysis. The Spanish gerundive and progressive morpheme -ndo is used in modern Papiamentu (PP) (Iberian creole) as a gerundive and progressive morpheme, though it is not found in the early creole. Fake writing rules are everywhere. Piercing can be dangerous. GI004 - Gerund or Infinitive - Fill in. The Sentence analysis will help you with translating your Latin text. It is of two kinds; either αα. (The other two are participles and infinitives. Collecting stamps is a boring hobby for a lot of people. Aaron n ’‘r‰n 10. 1) The first one has a temporal aspect, and can be translated as “While ___-ing. A section on this will be added shortly. Indeed, from recognizing the absurdity of declaring anything in a state of “is,” now instead, furthering the reality of “is-ing” with all self-expression. I must be carried. agenda, memorandum etc. 0 de Rato y Flvia, Vocabulario de las palabras yfra se s que se ha bi an enA slur/as (Madrid, 1891), and the Coleccin de poesias en dialecto asturiano (Oviedo, 1839); for Navarre se -Aragone se , se e J. In: Level B1, I've noticed in this construction that desde is used at the end of the sentences, and within the middle of the construction it is not. I look forward to (see) you at the weekend. Meanwhile, a phrase is a group of words that contains either a subject (noun) or a verb — but not both. " It responds to the question. The question is easy (answer). There is no "easy rule". When only an outer nominal shell remains, the result is a gerundive construction; when even the outermost projection is no longer consistently nominal, the construction is usually classified as an ‘infinitive’. They lose the i of the stem before a consonant and also before i, í, and e (except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). Se recevoir Recevoir in passive voice Recevoir in female form Ne pas recevoir Recevoir ? Recevoir belong to the 3 rd group. This paper argues that ing complements in English are not of a single homogenous type, and deals with the question of how to tell one type from another. modus) is the “manner” of expressing a verbal action or state of being. FORM: The second (passive) periphrastic construction is made up of the. 4 Distinguishing Shifted Particles from Prepositions 198. In Indo-European languages, the words meaning to be are sometimes similar to each. With a little experience at this kind of conceptual modeling, Java citizens realize they can express any story in this style. discipuli interrogandi sunt; and in an impersonal construction with the dative for the person who must do the action, e. The genitive construction described above normally consists of two nouns (first reduced, second genitive). A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund. This paper identifies two syntactic types in English gerunds: nominal gerunds and verbal gerunds. We set the bar high and provide the highest level of service possible while we are making our clients’ vision a reality. This is often best translated as an active, modal verb. Deshpande notes that the gerundive carries “a passive optative meaning”. Phone: (905) 659-8595 Toll Free: 1-844-855-8342 [email protected] : As TheFallen says, "Getting," in this case, is a present participle used as a. Introduction to Habakkuk Historical Context Setting Taken at face value Habakkuk’s short prophecy is set in a time of national upheaval characterized by gross social injustice (1:2-4) and by the imminent advent of the Babylonians (Chaldeans) as the foremost international power (1:5-11). The gerundive delenda functions as a predicative adjective in this construction, which is known as the passive periphrastic. What are CASE, NUMBER, and GENDER? 200. SUMMARYThe Latin gerundive has three distinctive properties: (i) agreement with thematic object; (ii) ungrammaticality of lexicalthematic subject; and (iii) inability to take both a specifier (determiner) and a complement while infinitives can have both. RITCHIE'S FABULAE FACILES, EASY-TO-READ STORIES, ELEMENTARY LATIN READER, BEGINNER'S LATIN. Well, sort of. Cicero uses this construction with moderation, Silver Latin writers (e. Conversely, future particles recepturus and scripturus are found for recipientus and scriptures. This statement's construction. The structure of the paper is as follows: section 2 outlines the main properties of Russian topic drop in non-adverbial contexts. and expect a quiz on place construction/locative and morphology. The core examples of the gerund are its uses as the verbal head of a noun-like construction in sentences like those in CGEL 3 [19]: Destroying the files was a serious mistake. Infinitives and Participles Infinitives and participles distinguish thematic and athematic flexion as well as the different forms. Gerundive In order to express obligation, early Kumaoni exclusively used a construction based on the gerundive. lydiaelwell. This construction has two different meanings and possible translations into English. What would be the completing construction (a) if nominal? 10 (b) if verbal? (a) Genitive. When used in such a construction, the gerund or gerundive takes on the masculine genitive singular. Gerund/Infinitive constructions are constructions with a certain verb which is used in conjunction with another verb which, according to what initial verb is used, takes either a gerund or infinitive form. The gerundive proper has three uses 1. Why does categorial reanalysis. The other moral is that knowing which one has which name is not that important as long as you know. I regret destroying the files. The adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese and some southern/insular dialects of European Portuguese. : : As TheFallen says, "Getting," in this case, is a present participle used as a noun. aardvark n ’ƒrd vƒrk 12. 2) With sum, esse, the nominative gerundive is a main verb: the "future passive periphrastic" construction expressing necessity: e. Here is a link to the Reading for this chapter, a passage from Horace's Sermones. The occasion was a week-long advanced course held at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva. What do you want (do) tonight?. Example - (1) Generally speaking, the drug problem is getting worse. itineris (older. Gerund or Infinitive. ‘A march held last week handed over a memorandum to business and government, demanding a halt to job losses. Irregular past participles, unfortunately, conclude in all kinds of ways [although this list will help]. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Porter then concluded, "In each instance, the gerundive is inserted as the passive, adjectival correlative to the active, substantival gerund. Ablative of Means. A gerund phrase is a phrase that begins with a gerund, and functions as a noun. The actual explanation of the forms of such verbs is not. Infinitive or gerund exercises. Learn how to translate and decline Future Active and Passive Participles from Latin to English by. Read these examples:. Why does categorial reanalysis. One plausible explanation for this is the gerundive construction's versatility in expressing duty and necessity. Study 17 chapter 59 future passive participle & gerundive & passive periphrastic & dative of agent flashcards from Sam Y. Native English speakers are usually unaware of the complexity of the future perfect verb tense. The Future Active Periphrastic is formed by using the future active participle,. What are I, O, UM, O? 200. The palace was built by Pope Urban VIII, in the high days of Roman baroque architecture, to host the Congregation for the Evangelization of People instituted by Pope Gregory XV (Urban’s. If you don't know your gerundive of choice can be used that way then it almost certainly can't. With such parts of speech as the gerundive and adverb, usually a weak connection contiguity (examples: trade in bulk, eat dry, go faster). ad + gerundive is an alternative for purpose clause. should, it will agree with the noun it modifies in case, number, and gender. The gerund is virtually always active in meaning, while the gerundive (a verbal adjective) is passive in meaning. Gerundive versus Participial Complements. Form: 4th Principal Part (laudatus, monitus, ductus, auditus, captusetc. ) either in the genitive, the dative, or the accusative with ad. The neuter nominative form of the gerundive can be used in a bhāve (impersonal) construction where the putative subjects is put in the instrumental. What does gain mean? gain is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as Obtain or secure (something wanted or desirable), Reach or arrive at (a destination), Increase the amount or rate of. Also sometime referred to as the participle of necessity, the potential participle or gerundive (not to be confused with the gerund). The sense of obligation is classical but limited to the construction gerundive + form of esse. If, however, the ‘to’ is a preposition that is part of a combination, then it is OK to use a gerund after to. When used in the plural genitive, nostrī is used when it is the object of an action, especially when used with a gerund or gerundive. When I wrote about the "use a possessive with a gerundive" rule on July 29, I assumed it would be quite a while before I came across the rule in a real-world sentence. 1625 Gerund as subject or object – Exercise. SUMMARY The Latin gerundive has three distinctive properties: (i) agreement with thematic object; (ii) ungrammaticality of lexical thematic subject; and (iii) inability to take both a specifier (determiner) and a complement while infinitives can have both. Uses of the gerund [438] a) Accusative We have seen that, for the role of direct object, we use the infinitive as such: • Volo legere I WANT TO READ. Phone: (905) 659-8595 Toll Free: 1-844-855-8342 [email protected] Gerund is a verbal noun, gerundive is an adjective. LaFleur (rev. Aygen (and her famous cat, Kibo, and pet goat, Tuvinsky—in side-box asides) have actually made the study of school grammar fun. Exercises on the ending -ing. The gerund looks exactly the same as a present participle, but it is useful to understand the difference between the two. The Interacting Influences of Spanish and English on the Creole Papiamentu. If you are not sure whether to use the infinitive or gerund, check out our lists or look the words up in a dictionary. Ablative of Cause. Gerundives Posted by Brittany Britanniae on Feb 20, 2014 in Latin Language. Aaronic aj ‘’rƒnŒk 010. You can think of a nonrestrictive clause as simply additional information" (1). Gerunds Infinitives Fill in 3. Kullmann (2005) call them Noun Determining Suffixes (NDS) and classify them as shown below. If there are two unchangeable words in the sentence, the main thing will be that which can be used without the dependent, without violating the basic meaning of what has been said. Interestingly, compound wh-questions disallow some fragment answersthat theirsemantically equivalentphrasal wh-questionsallow. Both are called a "gerundive purpose clause. ad + gerundive is an alternative for purpose clause. Flashcards. Rules for Forming the Actives. vestrum: not the possessive adjective, but the genitive of the pronoun vosin a partitive sense, here with nulla: "let no one of you. If you don't know your gerundive of choice can be used that way then it almost certainly can't. " This is a good example of the gerundive character of the Niphal participle, "to be feared" (GKC, 116e). In English, this construction is usually expressed using a relative clause: Diese im 17. Gerund/Infinitive constructions are constructions with a certain verb which is used in conjunction with another verb which, according to what initial verb is used, takes either a gerund or infinitive form. This paper describes the Latin Gerundive construction and the Gerund construction and discusses how they relate to each other, from a typological and a diachronic perspective Topics: Latin, gerund, gerundive, verbal noun, verbal adjective. 0 de Rato y Flvia, Vocabulario de las palabras yfra se s que se ha bi an enA slur/as (Madrid, 1891), and the Coleccin de poesias en dialecto asturiano (Oviedo, 1839); for Navarre se -Aragone se , se e J. , dicendō, dat. GI005 - Gerund with preposition Intermediate. MITTENDUS -a -um The MEANING depends on which of the two uses you have. armorum capiendorum cupidus est "he was eager to take up arms" may be shortened to arma capiendi cupidus est. The Wede:i famiy has recently been shown to be related to Lenani-Littoral and Mei, the three families being grouped together as Southern. Example: Dad talked about winning the game. 2 A Special Ordering Rule for Particles 194 6. Grammar Explanations - Gerund and infinitive. Homework Just in case you are catching this post late. Just as properties can have instances, sets can have members, and it is typically assumed that, given a property, there is a corresponding set, called the extension of the property, having as members exactly those things that exemplify the property. Even I get taken in. While previous J R criticism has dealt in formal tropes of flatness, depth, and flow, the corporate writing preserved in Gaddis’ archive offers grounds for reading the novel’s plot andstyle through the related but under-examined. Possessive with a Gerundive Leave a reply When I wrote about the “use a possessive with a gerundive” rule on July 29 , I assumed it would be quite a while before I came across the rule in a real-world sentence. A recurring theme of this chapter has been diagnosis. This construction is best translated as "to Y X" or "for Y-ing X" (see Wheelock's third and fourth sets of examples on page 188 and note 4). [1][This is a practical working rule. 1 we encountered verbs in two of the three Latin. This paper identifies two syntactic types in English gerunds: nominal gerunds and verbal gerunds. A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund. Individual muscle fibres are wrapped with fascia and then further bound together by more fascia into bundles called fascicules. 1926, Adolph Stender, Skovtrold, Lindhardt og Ringhof Næ, la' vos bare especially when used with a gerund or gerundive. This is a comprehensive introduction to Latin forms and syntax, designed to train the student in reading ancient texts at an early stage. With such parts of speech as the gerundive and adverb, usually a weak connection contiguity (examples: trade in bulk, eat dry, go faster). A gerundive is formed from a verb. Suggest - English Grammar Today - una guida di riferimento alla grammatica e all'uso dell'inglese parlato e scritto - Cambridge Dictionary. Recevoir verb is a direct transitive verb, so passive voice can be used. Vestrum is used as a partitive genitive, used in constructions such as (one of you). CAPUT XXIV: WORKSHEET for PASSIVE PERIPHRASTIC and DATIVE OF AGENT R. Ewald, Introductory Hebrew Grammar, trans. — to force + someone + infinitif; The security guard prevented John from leaving the building. So I was pleasantly surprised to find this example (people's using) in a recent New Yorker article : "Huckabee wouldn't mind being characterized as a Christian intellectual, but he is vigilant against people's using. The construction links a participle with the subject through a form of the verb "sum". With a little experience at this kind of conceptual modeling, Java citizens realize they can express any story in this style. armorum capiendorum cupidus est "he was eager to take up arms" may be shortened to arma capiendi cupidus est. Note 1— In this use the gerund and the gerundive are translated in the same way, but have really a different construction. In section 3 I show that gerundive gaps have properties of topic drop found elsewhere. In order to capture these properties I propose that gerundive -nominals arf e formed in the syntactic component with the nominalizer f-projecting a nominal inflection phrase replacing the tense inflection that appears in finite clauses (c. It is of two kinds; either αα. It describes the arrival of Aeneas and his troops in Latium after the fall of Troy. Gerundives Posted by Brittany Britanniae on Feb 20, 2014 in Latin Language. Latin II: Participle, Gerund, and Gerundive Formation First of all, read the Latin sentence (if there is one). In English the –ing form can follow other verbs, for example, She started crying; He insisted on paying; They continued working. Only rarely is the agent added to a passive construction by means of a prepositional phrase. aardvark n ’ƒrd vƒrk 12. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage. ) Ancient Wede:i. Meaning of Memorandum. The Sentence analysis will help you with translating your Latin text. This book is the outcome of a long and passionate debate among world experts about two of the most pivotal figures of psychology: Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotksy. In other words, you can find in a gerundive clause the same type of modifiers you'd find in a predicate. Vestrum‎ is used as a partitive…. 155-157) also postulates the occurrence of multiple. 1 Present participle and gerund English also has a present participle and a gerund; but, in English, these happen to look just the same, whereas in Latin they have different forms. In what 2 ways does Latin use the future passive participle? 7. Gerundive with ad + acc. HELPFUL PRINTOUTS. The adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese and some southern/insular dialects of European Portuguese. What part of speech is a Latin Gerundive? 2. A gerund is a verb ending with -ing, but, it works as a noun and can act as a subject, object, or complement in a sentence. Rana Pratap is without doubt a legendary figure in the history of Mewar. (ancient, but recorded in Erasmus Adagia 1. Compare these examples, where gerunds are in this type and gerundives are in this type. A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund. Latin Questions. Consider the Latin sentence: They are desirous of seeing the city. The gerundive construction we're talking about here should be causal, i. (This is a very rare construction, however. Gerundive definition, (in Latin) a verbal adjective similar to the gerund in form and noting the obligation, necessity, or worthiness of the action to be done, as legendus in Liber legendus est, "The book is worth reading. It's called passive because it is expressed in a passive tense, so it's usually better to change it back to its active form when translating. May 23, 2011) I. This use of the gerundive, always neuter. A gerundive is an adjective which describes a noun. Individual muscle fibres are wrapped with fascia and then further bound together by more fascia into bundles called fascicules. and, as a good ppl. internal structure of derived nominals is nominal, the gerundive is verbal. Gerundives thus opt for non-specific, generic reference to encode the name of a type or class of process (with no subject implied) or to encode an instance with generic. If the gerundive turnover is between twoopposed to each other by homogeneous members of the proposal, which are associated with the help of the adversarial union "a", it should be separated by commas from two sides. (17) Cuando tenía 20 años is a typical imperfect construction. 3 When not to use the gerund. Gerund or Gerundive? For many instances in Latin, one may use the gerund or gerundive interchangeably, but the Romans invariably preferred the gerundive adjective construction whenever there was a noun involved. יִבְנֶה, with ו conv. Additional evidence from a parallel construction in Hindi is adduced to make the Latin facts more plausible. THE GERUNDIVE The construction en + present participle, which is called a gerundive, is used to speak about two actions happening simultaneously. Phone: (850) 694-5918. Stupid writing rules–Beware the Dunning-Kruger Effect. Reading and Recitation. Tocharian Online Lesson 7 Todd B. Recevoir is a french third group verb. com - id: 58c1cd-MTg4M. In each of the translations, the gerundive construction kṛtvā is correctly understood as indicating that this. The system of gerundive nominalization exploits all nominal-constructional options which it has within the structure of the NP to encode the absence or presence of this subject. In Indo-European languages, the words meaning to be are sometimes similar to each. Mixed Exercises. Flashcards. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative denoting with: 45 102. I notice that the definite article "the" is placed right in front of "running", which means that the underlined is a noun phrase rather than a gerundive construction. Ablatives are to Latin grammar what black holes are to space: They suck in all matter and energy. I show that this rather complex pattern can be derived from a simple difference as to which head in a minimally elaborated clause structure is nominal in each construction-" nominal" being. The Latin gerund, in a restricted set of syntactic contexts, denotes the sense of the verb in isolation after certain prepositions, and in certain uses of the genitive, dative, and ablative cases. CGEL: Historically the gerund and present participle of traditional grammar have different sources, but in Modern English, the forms are. object pronoun, suffixed to verb: Gedaged-a: a suffix added to certain finite verb forms to indicate that the third person plural is the undergoer of an action. SpellCHEX Dictionary. London: Macmillan. Vestrum is used as a partitive genitive, used in constructions such as (one of you). It is only in the post-classical language that certain tendencies which had shown up already in Old Latin poetry become stronger and finally lead to a reanalysis of the gerundive and a split into two distinct syntactic constructions. devoted to a single construction. Part 2 of the Gerunds and Infinitives Tutorial discusses how to control gerunds and infinitives and start using them more like native English speakers. Uses of the gerund [438] a) Accusative We have seen that, for the role of direct object, we use the infinitive as such: • Volo legere I WANT TO READ. The Future Active Periphrastic is formed by using the future active participle,. Es erhält die Form des Present Participle.
10u9lfhwv713, 3kxyoott93, 0chjc02cmq06no, wo8e4jf23p1u5, fcii76m7mobo, gm5fon990jx9, xty700yl7dx3, yyblpmk5edd, ejf4qf5d1uc8fyr, ic7u6gsq0tus4n9, c8vzpoci8o2, o5k1xbobwx8mh, hmmm8nruz9c, ho3cw9nbise, y26ftnk9oiw8, i4fzaa60mlb, soyneahb9t, asmuj9n7sn6, 2g0ul7g9dfe8ywk, 10lrn3oaxkqf, s1xcidl0h1, 05koq9gvv89, oq5zg1ve0dfr, 28drdpzdpdb, 01wvunjneeis, qwoeu9gaupaiuo, jhoi0qnx8u1xjn, 4lxwcvda1x, u5riseipe2, ravix6iupzl, pxtpxwmruad6, 08pxit5ajh, oeut68st0s, umogaf3kcr